Lead researcher: Reuben
This project aims to conduct scientific research to help conserve three large carnivore species in and around habitat linkages of the Central Forest Spine: the Malayan Tiger Panthera tigris jacksoni (‘Harimau belang’ in Malay), the Leopard Panthera pardus (‘Harimau kumbang’) and Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa (‘Harimau dahan’). This project is jointly funded by Panthera and Woodland Park Zoo. This project is jointly-funded by Panthera and Woodland Park Zoo.
In order to assess the effectiveness of conservation interventions for these species, their population density estimates need to be determined in potential source sites around these linkages. Linkages in Malaysia mainly consist of production forest reserves and state land forests that adjoin protected areas/source sites, but most are not fully protected and are becoming increasingly fragmented by roads, infrastructure and monoculture plantations. Research questions that will be answered in this project include:
1) What are the population density estimates of tigers, leopards and clouded leopards in potential source sites and adjoining habitat linkages?
2) How can we increase the usage of highway underpasses by large carnivores and their prey in habitat linkages?
3) Is there large carnivore gene flow out of protected areas via habitat linkages?
4) Can we predict how fragmentation and hunting will affect large carnivores and their prey in and around habitat linkages?
This project will not only help contribute to the conservation of large carnivores in and around fragmented habitat linkages, but also contribute to the Department of Wildlife and National Parks’ planned National Tiger Survey and National Tiger Conservation Action Plan. Ultimately, this project will help protect tiger, leopard and clouded leopard populations in Peninsular Malaysia’s Central Forest Spine.
The first phase of this project will focus in a “Core Area” within Terengganu that will encompass Primary Linkage 7 (Kenyir Wildlife Corridor) and part of Malaysian’s largest protected area where most of Malaysia’s tigers are still found – Taman Negara. In this Core Area, the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) and researchers from Rimba are conducting camera trapping in 600 km2 of forest to obtain baseline population density estimates of all three species, which can be used to monitor the effectiveness of management interventions within the Core Area.
This project continues the work started by the Kenyir Wildlife Corridor Project and Project Black Cloud. We are still looking for suitable research assistants to help with this project. Interested candidates please send an email with your CV directly to Reuben.
Lead Researcher: Sheema
Collaborators: Dr. Gan Han Ming
Project description: Fruit bats such as flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) are under severe threat in Peninsular Malaysia due to hunting (for food and medicine) and extermination (as agricultural pests). They are often viewed negatively, and are not charismatic flagship species, so there is little motivation to conserve them. Yet the decline of flying fox populations could have serious implications for Malaysia’s forest ecosystems, as well as people’s livelihoods and wellbeing – especially on tropical islands. This is particularly important as flying foxes still do not have total legal protection in Peninsular Malaysia. See here for further information on these issues and how Rimba has been involved.
Ecologists know that fruit bats provide important ecosystem services through seed dispersal and pollination. However, how do these processes happen? What are the specific benefits to people? How can we communicate to policymakers and local communities that this is why we should conserve flying foxes? Can fruit bats and humans coexist in peace? This PhD project aims to answer some of these questions and provide baseline data to support the conservation of flying foxes and other fruit bats in Peninsular Malaysia. It will have a strong applied conservation approach, utilising both ecological and social studies.
Due to limited funding, this project is currently unable to employ long-term research assistants. However, we are often able to accommodate short-term volunteers with flexible schedules, particularly if you are already based in Peninsular Malaysia. If you are interested in getting involved, please contact Sheema directly.
Lead Researcher: Liew
Project description: Limestone karsts are renowned for being arks of biodiversity, but are gravely imperilled by mining, which have caused extinctions of animals in Malaysia. While maps of limestone karsts exist for large regions Southeast Asia (see below), they are very coarse-scaled and are of limited use for conservation planning. This project aims to collate information from the literature and past biodiversity surveys to build an online interactive database that provides fine-scale information on the distribution and biodiversity of limestone karsts in Malaysia. We hope that this database will help support the protection efforts of specific limestone karsts due to their biological importance.
Lead Researcher: Giam
Project description: Peat swamp forests are one of the most unique, but at the same time, one of the most critically imperiled ecosystems on Earth. Despite being rich in fish species — many of which are strict endemics found nowhere else — Southeast Asian peat swamp forests are being lost at unprecedented rates. While previous studies have surveyed the fish communities in the peat swamps of Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak, the ecology of peat swamp fishes with respect to their spatial/temporal species richness patterns, community structure, and response to habitat degradation remains unknown.
In this project, we hope to fill these knowledge gaps by studying fish communities across different land use types across flooded rivers of peat swamp forest (commonly known as blackwaters) in Sarawak and Sumatra. First, we examine the environmental factors that structure fish communities in intact peat swamp forests in both dry and wet seasons. Second, we will examine if species richness and community composition change across blackwaters in different stages of the peat swamp forest. Third, we will evaluate the impacts of logging and oil palm plantation conversion on peat swamp fish communities. Finally, we explore options such as buffers to mitigate any negative impacts of land use on those fish communities.
Our study represents the first attempt to understand the impacts of land-use change on the unique fish biodiversity of peat swamp forests and elucidate how fish communities are structured across different stages of a peat swamp forest. Our work on mitigating the impact of oil palm agriculture will also help to inform policy aimed towards preserving biodiversity while fulfilling concomitant human development goals. As peat swamp forests are underexplored, it is likely that new fish species will be found in our project especially given recent discoveries of the world’s smallest fishes in the peat swamps of Sarawak and Sumatra. By advancing the hitherto limited ecological and conservation knowledge of peat swamp forests, we hope our study will contribute toward the continued preservation of this highly imperiled habitat and its unique fishes.
Lead Researcher: Reuben
Collaborators: Distinguished Professor William Laurance, Dr. Susan Laurance and Dr. Miriam Goosem
Government partners: Economic Planning Unit, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Terengganu State Forestry Department and Public Works Department
Project description: Several highway viaducts termed as ‘eco-viaducts’ have been built by Malaysian road authorities along highways with the intention of helping mammals to cross highways safely.
Several studies that have quantified the effectiveness of highway viaducts as wildlife crossing structures have only been conducted in temperate countries such as Canada – none have been conducted in the tropics so far. As such, we do not know whether underpasses in tropical countries such as Malaysia can help reduce mortality, nor have any telemetry studies been conducted locally to characterise animal movement patterns through these viaducts.
Unfortunately, roads and viaducts can also provide encroachers greater access to adjoining forests. The East-West highway in Perak has been the subject of increased anti-poaching effort due to numerous access points found along the highway. In fact, a possible hunting camp was found beneath one of the eco-viaducts.
This project evaluated the effects of highway viaducts on large mammal movement in Peninsular Malaysia. The hypothesis was that highway viaducts are utilised by all large mammals in the landscape, and landscape factors influence their effectiveness more than structural factors. The focal taxa includes six large mammal species: Malayan Tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni; Fig. 4), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Asian Tapir (Tapirus indicus), Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak), Sambar Deer (Rusa unicolor) and Wild Pig (Sus scrofa).
The project had strong field ecological and applied conservation policy components, with the latter contributing to Outcome 4 of the National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia and the Central Forest Spine (CFS) Master Plan for Ecological Linkages. Fieldwork was conducted within priority areas for tiger conservation in Peninsular Malaysia, as well as the primary ecological linkages identified in the CFS Master Plan. Suggested improvements were also proposed to build more effective wildlife crossings if current highway viaducts are ineffective.
This project has now been concluded, and the results are in the process of being published in peer-reviewed journals. Its work to protect the corridor has been continued in other forms, first via Project Black Cloud and now via Harimau Selamanya.
3. Dhole Conservation Case Study
Lead researcher: Laurie
This short-term project was funded by the Mohamed Bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund to evaluate the effectiveness of scent-baited traps to obtain hair samples from Dhole/Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) and other threatened carnivores in the Kenyir Wildlife Corridor, for the purposes of population genetic studies.
Population estimates of dhole in Peninsular Malaysia have yet to be determined, in part due to their low detection rates in rainforests. Without sufficient knowledge on their conservation status, it would be difficult to prescribe specific management interventions to help conserve this species. During our camera-trapping surveys, a group of five individuals was recorded in the Kenyir Wildlife Corridor. Apart from this species, other threatened (i.e. Endangered and Vulnerable IUCN threat status) carnivore species that can be found in the same habitat include the Malayan Tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni), Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata). Unfortunately, this corridor is threatened by potential conversion to rubber plantations and infrastructure, and gathering more information on the conservation status of dholes and other carnivores can be used to justify calls for gazettement of this corridor as a ‘no-conversion’ area.
Unfortunately, scent-baited hair-trapping was found to be unsuitable for the collection of hair samples from dholes in Malaysia, in part due to this species occurring at very low densities within the landscape. This method may also be unsuitable in areas with significant elephant presence as there does not appear to be any way of securing the hair traps against damage by elephants (Elephas maximas). Nevertheless, this technique requires further investigation, as positive rubbing responses were recorded for tigers and clouded leopards. However, not all individuals responded, and therefore this method may be inappropriate for mark-recapture population monitoring due to the possibility of false non-detections. Thus, scent-baited hair-trapping may only help answer certain ecological questions such as understanding the genetic diversity of individuals within certain carnivore populations.
Lead researcher: Laurie
Government partners: Economic Planning Unit, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Terengganu State Forestry Department
The dense tropical rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia are home to three enigmatic and beautiful big cats – Malayan Tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni), Leopard (Panthera pardus) and Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). All three are globally threatened with extinction; classified by the IUCN Red List as ‘Endangered’, ‘Near threatened’ and ‘Vulnerable’ respectively. While much research has been carried out in Malaysia in order to improve our knowledge of the largest and most threatened of these cats – the Tiger, to date there have been few studies focused specifically on either Leopard or Clouded Leopard in Peninsular Malaysia. Consequently, very little is known about their regional conservation status in Malaysia or basic ecological information.
Many studies have employed camera traps to individually identify tigers using their unique stripe patterns. However, unlike anywhere else in the world, the population of leopards in Malaysia is almost entirely composed of individuals with black coats. Whilst they still possess the spots and rosette patterns that ‘yellow’ leopards elsewhere around the world display so vividly, these are masked by the uniform black colouration of their coat. Conventional camera traps that rely on a flash to illuminate the subject are unable to show these patterns in their photographs. However, by using a strictly infrared flash, the patterns hidden within the coat are revealed. With this new technique we could now begin to undertake research to finally understand more about these big cats (for further discussion, see this Mongabay article).
Project Black Cloud focused on these melanistic leopards and clouded leopards. We deployed double-sided camera trap stations over an area of roughly 150km2 in the Kenyir Wildlife Corridor. From the data collected, we determined the density of both species’s populations in the corridor. Other information may include how the highway that bisects the corridor affects these animals, and whether their activity patterns are correlated with any potential prey species.
As tigers continue to disappear from landscapes across their range, information on other large carnivores occupying the same habitat may become increasingly valuable – for instance to determine whether these other carnivores might potentially occupy the niche that has been vacated by tigers. We hope that apart from providing vital information to shed light on these less understood carnivores, this project can also provide support for our ongoing efforts to gazette the Kenyir Wildlife Corridor as a protected area. This project has now ended and the results are in the process of being submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Its work continues via the Harimau Selamanya project.
5. A Lifedesk for Malaysian terrestrial molluscs
Lead Researcher: Liew
Project description: We have set up a ‘Lifedesk’ on Malaysian terrestrial molluscs under the Encyclopedia of Life Program. This online database contains information on Malaysian terrestrial molluscs from literature and reference collections. In the end, we hope to complete a corpus of literature for each land snail species from Malaysia for public access on the internet. This endeavour will allow scientists and the public to better understand molluscan systematics through the development of identification resources and tools to manage molllusc classifications and synonymies.
In addition to the assembling of photographs and literature database, general species descriptions, ecological information and taxonomic status will be provided for each species. We welcome suggestions, participation and any information that will enrich this database.
‘Friends of Rimba’
Projects that are independent of Rimba, but whom we have worked together with in the past, and continue to support in spirit:
Management and ecology of Malaysian Elephants (MEME)
Lead Researcher: Ahimsa
Project description: The ‘Management and Ecology of Malaysian Elephants‘ — or MEME — is a research program that aims to (1) assess the effectiveness of current elephant management policies in Peninsular Malaysia, (2) develop a practical long-term management strategy based on scientifically sound knowledge of elephant behavior and ecology, and (3) build local capacity to produce a new generation of wildlife researchers and managers of high scientific caliber.